Appendix D

Biomarkers Figure

images

FIGURE D-1 Relationships between sodium intake, surrogate marker (blood pressure) and health outcomes. Surrogate markers are a laboratory measurement or physical sign used as an indicator of a health outcome. Health outcomes represent incidence (e.g., development) of a disease or mortality.
SOURCE: Adapted from Russell et al., 2009. Reprinted with permission from American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2009; 89:728-733).

REFERENCE

Russell, R., M. Chung, E. M. Balk, S. Atkinson, E. L. Giovannucci, S. Ip, A. H. Lichtenstein, S. T. Mayne, G. Raman, A. Catharine Ross, T. A. Trikalinos, K. P. West, Jr., and J. Lau. 2009. Opportunities and challenges in conducting systematic reviews to support the development of nutrient reference values: Vitamin A as an example. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89(3):728-733.



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OCR for page 141
Appendix D Biomarkers Figure Health Outcomes Surrogate Marker Sodium Cardiovascular disease, Intake Blood pressure stroke, and mortality FIGURE D-1 Relationships between sodium intake, surrogate marker (blood pressure) and health outcomes. Surrogate markers are a laboratory measurement or physical sign used as an indicator of a health outcome. Health outcomes represent incidence (e.g., development) of a disease or mortality. SOURCE: Adapted from Russell et al., 2009. Reprinted with permission from American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2009; 89:728-733). REFERENCE Russell, R., M. Chung, E. M. Balk, S. Atkinson, E. L. Giovannucci, S. Ip, A. H. Lichtenstein, S. T. Mayne, G. Raman, A. Catharine Ross, T. A. Trikalinos, K. P. West, Jr., and J. Lau. 2009. Opportunities and challenges in conducting systematic reviews to support the development of nutrient reference values: Vitamin A as an example. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 89(3):728-733. 141

OCR for page 141