Appendix A

Acronyms and Abbreviations

ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme
ADHF acute decompensated heart failure
AI adequate intake
ARB angiotensin receptor blocker




BMI body mass index
BP blood pressure




CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CHF congestive heart failure
CI confidence interval
CKD chronic kidney disease
CT computed tomography
CV cardiovascular
CVD cardiovascular disease




d day
DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
DGA Dietary Guidelines for Americans
DGAC Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee
DM diabetes mellitus
DRI Dietary Reference Intake




EAR Estimated Average Requirement
eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate


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Appendix A Acronyms and Abbreviations ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme ADHF acute decompensated heart failure AI adequate intake ARB angiotensin receptor blocker BMI body mass index BP blood pressure CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CHF congestive heart failure CI confidence interval CKD chronic kidney disease CT computed tomography CV cardiovascular CVD cardiovascular disease d day DASH Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension DGA Dietary Guidelines for Americans DGAC Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee DM diabetes mellitus DRI Dietary Reference Intake EAR Estimated Average Requirement eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate 127

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128 SODIUM INTAKE IN POPULATIONS eNOS endothelial nitric oxide synthase ESRD end-stage renal disease FFQ food frequency questionnaire g gram h hour HDL high-density lipoprotein Hg mercury HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services HR hazard ratio IHD ischemic heart disease IOM Institute of Medicine IS ischemic stroke K potassium kg kilogram KHANES Korean Health and Nutrition Examination Survey L liter LDL low-density lipoprotein LOAEL lowest observed adverse effect level LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction mg milligram MI myocardial infarction ml milliliter mm millimeter mmol millimole n number Na sodium NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NOAEL no-observed adverse effect level ONTARGET ONgoing Telmisartan Alone in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial PRA plasma renin activity PURE Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology

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APPENDIX A 129 Q quartile/quintile RAAS renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system RCT randomized controlled trial RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance RR relative risk SALTURK Relationship between Hypertension and Salt Intake in Turkish Populations SD standard deviation TOHP Trials of Hypertension Prevention TRANSCEND Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in ACE INtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease UK urinary potassium UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level UNa urinary sodium USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture WHO World Health Organization

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