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B Environmental Protection Agency Contractor Reports on Climate-Change, Indoor-Environment, and Health Topics The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Indoor Environments Division—the sponsor of this study—commissioned a set of white papers on topics related to climate change, the indoor environment, and health to provide information for the committee’s consideration. They are listed be- low1 and cited, where appropriate, throughout the report. The white papers are also compiled on an EPA Web site that provides links to a number of Agency and contractor reports on issues of indoor air quality (EPA, 2011). The responsibility for the white papers listed below rests with their authors, and their content does not necessarily represent the views of the committee or the Institute of Medicine. Contractor Report: Climate Change and Indoor Air Quality This report presents a general discussion of the effects of climate change on indoor air quality, including occupant influences. Among the issues addressed are how increasing outdoor temperatures may change window and air-conditioning use, moisture intrusion and its adverse health effects, and the effects of weatherization and energy-efficiency efforts on indoor air quality. Field WR. 2010. Climate change and indoor air quality. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. 1 Descriptions of report content are derived in part from EPA (2011). 263
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264 CLIMATE CHANGE, THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT, AND HEALTH Contractor Report: Research Needed to Address the Impacts of Climate Change on Indoor Air Quality This report offers opinions on climate-change and indoor air quality research needs. Topics include high-temperature events; infiltration of out- door allergens, particulate matter, and ozone; water and dampness intru- sion; and disease vectors. The discussion of research gaps focuses on human health but also includes energy efficiency. Girman J. 2010. Research needed to address the impacts of climate change on indoor air quality. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. Contractor Report: National Programs to Assess Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Effects of Building Materials and Products This report examines national building-materials and product- evaluation programs, which were developed often in response to indoor air quality concerns and vary in focus and scope. These include efforts in the United States, various countries in Europe, the European Union, Japan, and Korea. Levin H. 2010. National programs to assess IEQ effects of building ma- terial and products. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor Environments Division. Contractor Report: Climate Change and Potential Effects on Microbial Air Quality in the Built Environment This report examines the effects of climate change on pathogens and indoor air quality. Changing climates have caused pathogens and pests to venture into new geographic areas and create new indoor environmental risks, including the possibility of increased pesticide use in response to invading organisms. Morey PR. 2010. Climate change and potential effects on microbial air quality in the built environment. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. Contractor Report: Building Codes and Indoor Air Quality This report that examines energy-related building codes throughout the United States and how these codes affect ventilation, including air exchange, and indoor air pollution. Ventilation and moisture conditions in existing residential and commercial buildings may be altered because of an increase in extreme weather events due to climate change. Buildings constructed under a set of standards appropriate for the original climate may not be adequate in a different climate.
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265 APPENDIX B Mudarri D. 2010. Building codes and indoor air quality. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. Contractor Report: Public Health Consequences and Cost of Climate Change Impacts on Indoor Environments This report addresses the public-health and economic implications of the effects of climate change on indoor environmental quality. It details the effects of biologic agents and of increased humidity, temperature, ventila- tion, and product emissions on the indoor environment and corresponding human health risks. Climate change and its effects on outdoor contami- nants are also examined, and possible adaptation strategies are examined. Mudarri D. 2010. Public health consequences and cost of climate change impacts on indoor environments. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. Contractor Report: Climate Change, Indoor Air Quality and Health This report describes exposure to common biologic and chemical agents that result from building adaptations. The discussion includes a look at Green Building programs and recommendations on how to make them more considerate of issues of indoor air quality. There is an emphasis on the need for community health-care practitioners to become more involved in addressing susceptible and vulnerable populations. Schenck P, Ahmed, AK, Bracker A, DeBernardo R. 2010. Climate change, indoor air quality and health. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. Contractor Report: Indoor Environmental Quality and Climate Change This report addresses the impacts of climate change on indoor environ- ments, including material related to potential interventions and solutions. Brennan T. 2010. Indoor environmental quality and climate change. Wash- ington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. Contractor Report: The Impact of Increasing Severe Weather Events on Shelter This report addresses the impacts of severe weather events on indoor environments. Topics addressed include the use of buildings as shelters from weather extremes. Brennan T. 2010. The impact of increasing severe weather events on shelter. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency.
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266 CLIMATE CHANGE, THE INDOOR ENVIRONMENT, AND HEALTH DRAFT Contractor Report: Opportunities for Green Building (GB) Rating Systems to Improve Indoor Air Quality Credits and to Address Changing Climatic Conditions This report describes green-building rating systems, climate change, and indoor environmental quality. Green-building rating systems focus mostly on indoor environments, including moisture, ventilation rates, volatile or- ganic compounds, thermal comfort, and particulate matter but are evalu- ated in a climate-change context. Two rating systems, those of BREEAM and LEED, are detailed in this report. Srebric J. 2010. Draft report: Opportunities for green building (GB) rating systems to improve indoor air quality credits and to address changing climatic conditions. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. REFERENCE EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2011. Indoor air—Publications and resources. http:// www.epa.gov/iaq/pubs/ (accessed June 21, 2011).