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Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment A Biographical Information on Committee Members From left to right: Nancy Kim, Alvaro Puga, Malcolm Pike, Michael Denison, Andrew Renwick, Thomas McKone, Richard Di Giulio, David Savitz, David Eaton, Norbert Kaminski, Joshua Cohen, Paul Terranova, Allen Silverstone, Gary Williams, Yiliang Zhu, Kimberly Thompson, Dennis Bier David L. Eaton, Chair, is a professor in the Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences and the Public Health Genetics Program in the school of Public Health and Community Medicine, and associate vice provost for research at the University of Washington in Seattle. He is also the director of the Center of Ecogenetics and Environmental Health at the university and an associate director of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center–University of Washington–Childrens’ Hospital and Medical Center Cancer Center Research Consortium. He earned a B.S. in pre-
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Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment medicine from Montana State University in 1974 and a Ph.D. in pharmacology and toxicology from the University of Kansas Medical Center in 1978. Dr. Eaton’s research interests include the molecular basis of chemically induced cancers and understanding how human genetic variation in biotransformation enzymes may increase or decrease individual susceptibility to natural and synthetic chemicals found in the environment. He has served on numerous boards and committees, including service as president of the Society of Toxicology in 2001-2002 and as a member of the NRC Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology (BEST). Dr. Eaton has served as chair of the NRC Committee on Emerging Issues and Data on Environmental Contaminants and as a member of the Panel on Arsenic in Drinking Water. Dr. Eaton has been awarded many distinguished fellowships and honors, including the Achievement Award from the Society of Toxicology in 1990. He is an elected fellow of the Academy of Toxicological Sciences and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dennis M. Bier is professor of pediatrics and director of the Children’s Nutrition Research Center and program director of the General Clinical Research Center at Baylor College of Medicine. Dr. Bier earned a B.S. from Le Moyne College in 1962 and an M.D. from New Jersey College of Medicine in 1966. Dr. Bier’s research interests include the role of nutrition in human health and in the prevention and treatment of disease and the role of maternal, fetal, and childhood nutrition on the growth, development, and health of children through adolescence. He also has professional interests in the long-term consequences of nutrient inadequacy during critical periods of embryonic and fetal life through infancy and childhood and on the pathogenesis of adult chronic diseases. Dr. Bier has expertise in macronutrients (carbohydrate, lipid, and protein), intermediary metabolism, tracer kinetics, diabetes, obesity, and endocrine disorders. Dr. Bier was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 1997 and was a member of IOM’s Food and Nutrition Board. He also served on the IOM Committee on Implications of Dioxin in the Food Supply. Joshua T. Cohen is a lecturer at Tufts New England Medical Center in the Institute for Clinical Care Research and Health Policy Studies. He earned his B.A. (1986) in applied mathematics and Ph.D. (1994) in decision sciences from Harvard University. Dr. Cohen’s research focuses on the application of decision analytical techniques to environmental risk management problems with a special emphasis on the proper characterization and analysis of uncertainty. He was the lead author on a study comparing the risks and benefits of changes in population fish consumption patterns, an analysis of the risks and benefits of cell-phone use while driving, and a study comparing the costs and health impacts of advanced diesel and compressed
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Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment natural gas urban transit buses. He has also played a key role in a risk assessment of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (“mad cow disease”) in the United States. Michael Denison is a professor in the Department of Environmental Toxicology at the University of California at Davis. He earned a B.S. from Saint Francis College in 1977, an M.S. from Mississippi State University in 1980, and a Ph.D. from Cornell University in 1983. Dr. Denison completed postdoctoral training at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada, and the Department of Pharmacology at Stanford University. He began his professional career as an assistant professor in the Department of Biochemistry at Michigan State University in 1988 and relocated to the University of California in 1992. His research interests include the biochemical and molecular mechanisms by which xenobiotics (particularly dioxins and related chemicals and endocrine disruptors) interact with ligand-dependent transcription factors to produce biological and toxicological effects in animals. Dr. Denison is also examining the molecular and structural characteristics of the Ah receptor responsible for its binding and activation by dioxins and structurally diverse xenobiotics. The application of molecular biological approaches for the development of rapid high-throughput bioassay systems for detection and characterization of ligands for xenobiotic receptors present in environmental, biological, and food samples is another major research area. Dr. Denison is co-chair of the International Advisory Board of the annual International Dioxin Symposium and was the organizer and co-chair of the 2003 U.S.-Vietnam Scientific Workshop on Methodologies of Dioxin Screening, Remediation, and Site Characterization in Hanoi, Vietnam. Richard Di Giulio is a professor of environmental toxicology at the Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, director of the Integrated Toxicology Program, director of the Superfund Basic Research Center, and director of the Center for Comparative Biology of Vulnerable Populations at Duke University. He earned a B.A. from the University of Texas at Austin in 1972, an M.S. from Louisiana State University in 1978, and a Ph.D. from Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in 1982. Dr. Di Giulio’s professional experience began as an assistant professor and research associate at the School of Forestry and Environmental Studies at Duke University in 1982. His research focuses on biochemical and molecular responses of aquatic animals to environmental stressors, particularly contaminants. Of particular concern are mechanisms of oxidative metabolism of aromatic hydrocarbons; mechanisms of free radical production and antioxidant defense, and mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis, developmental perturbations, and adaptations to contaminated environments by
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Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment fishes. Dr. Di Giulio also has interests in the area of interconnections between ecological and human health. Norbert Kaminski is the director of the Center for Integrative Toxicology, formerly known as the Institute for Environmental Toxicology at Michigan State University. He is also a professor of pharmacology and toxicology in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology. Dr. Kaminski earned a B.A. in chemistry from Loyola University in 1978, an M.S. in toxicology in 1981, and a Ph.D. in toxicology and physiology in 1985 from North Carolina State University. Dr. Kaminski’s postdoctoral training was in immunotoxicology at the Medical College of Virginia. He continued at the Medical College of Virginia as a faculty member until 1993. His research interests are in the areas of immunotoxicology and immunopharmacology and, in particular, the molecular mechanisms by which dioxins alter B-cell differentiation and function. Dr. Kaminski served on the IOM Committee to Review the Health Effects in Vietnam Veterans of Exposure to Herbicides. Nancy Kim is the director of the Division of Environmental Health Assessment, within the New York State Department of Health, and an associate professor at the University of Albany School of Public Health. She earned a B.A. in chemistry from the University of Delaware in 1964, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in chemistry from Northwestern University in 1966 and 1969, respectively. Her interests include toxicological evaluations, exposure assessments, risk assessment, structural activity correlations, and quantitative relationships between toxicological parameters. Dr. Kim has held numerous panel memberships and is now a member of the National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Board of Scientific Counselors. She has received several awards and honors, including the Women in Government Award presented by the New York State Department of Health. In 1999, Dr. Kim was inducted into the Delta Omega Society, a national honorary public health society. Antoine Keng Djien Liem is scientific coordinator of the Scientific Committee of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in Parma. Dr. Liem earned an M.Sc. degree in environmental chemistry and toxicology from the University of Amsterdam (1984) and a Ph.D. in biology from the Utrecht University (1997). Following his university study in Amsterdam, Dr. Liem began his career at the Department of Industrial Contaminants of the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in Bilthoven. After the discovery of increased levels of dioxins in milk in cows grazing in the vicinity of municipal waste incinerators, Dr. Liem was leader of various multidisciplinary dioxin projects. He was appointed chairman of the Dutch Working Group on Dioxins in Food and the Dutch Working
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Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Group on Dietary Intakes and acted as temporary adviser and national delegate in the framework of studies of the World Health Organization related to dioxins and related compounds. In 1998-2000, Dr. Liem acted as the leader of the Dutch delegation coordinating a European Scientific Cooperation (SCOOP) Task on the assessment of dietary intake of dioxins and related PCBs by the population of EU member states. This EU task was jointly coordinated by RIVM and the Swedish National Food Administration. The outcomes of the EU-SCOOP project were used in the risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in food carried out by the EU’s Scientific Committee on Food (SCF), in which Dr. Liem contributed to the Task Force preparing the opinion, and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2001. Thomas McKone is senior staff scientist and deputy department head at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and an adjunct professor and researcher at the University of California at Berkeley School of Public Health. He earned a Ph.D. from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1981. Dr. McKone’s research interests include risk assessment methods, mass transfer at environmental and human-environmental boundaries, model uncertainty and reliability in exposure risk assessment, environmental and occupational radioactivity, and biotransfer and bioconcentration. He is very active in many research and professional organizations and is a member of the NRC Committee on the Selection and Use of Models in the Regulatory Decision Process and was a member of the NRC Committee on Toxicants and Pathogens in Biosolids Applied to Land. Dr. McKone is also a member of the Advisory Council of the American Center for Life Cycle Assessment and a member of the Organizing Committee for the International Life-Cycle Initiative, a joint effort of the United Nations Environment Program and the Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. One of Dr. McKone’s most recognized achievements was his development of the CalTOX risk assessment framework for the California Department of Toxic Substances Control. Malcolm Pike is a professor in the Department of Preventive Medicine at the Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine. As a native of South Africa, he earned a B.S. (honors) in mathematics from the University of Witwaterstand in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 1956. He then studied statistics at Birkbeck College of the University of London and earned a diploma in mathematical statistics from Cambridge University in 1958. Dr. Pike received a Ph.D. in mathematical statistics from Aberdeen University in Aberdeen, Scotland, in 1963. From 1963 to 1969, he was at the Statistical Research Unit of the Medical Research Council at University College, London, and from 1969
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Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment through 1973, he was the Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford University. Between 1973 and 1983, he held the position of professor of preventive medicine at the University of Southern California School of Medicine. Following this, Dr. Pike was the director of the ICRF Cancer Epidemiology and Clinical Trials Unit at Oxford University for 4 years. His research areas include the epidemiology of breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer. Dr. Pike has received many distinguished honors, including the Brinker International Award of the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation in 1994 and the American Association for Cancer Research Award for Research Excellence in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention in 2004. He was elected to the Institute of Medicine in 1994. Alvaro Puga is a professor of molecular biology and environmental health in the Department of Environmental Health at the University of Cincinnati, director of the Center for Environmental Genetics and deputy director of the Superfund Basic Research Program at the University of Cincinnati. In Spain, he earned a Licenciate in Biology degree in 1966 from the Universidad Complutense in Madrid. In the United States, Dr. Puga earned a Ph.D in 1972 from Purdue University and completed his postdoctoral training in 1976 with Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation in La Jolla, California. His research interests include the molecular mechanisms of dioxin and other environmental contaminants with the purpose of elucidating the signal transduction pathways that underlie the biological responses postexposure to these contaminants. He is also investigating the genetic diversity on the response to exposure, specifically the genes that code for transcription factors with a regulatory role in the expression of detoxification enzymes. Before joining the University of Cincinnati, he was the head of the Unit on Pharmacogenetics, Laboratory of Developmental Pharmacology, at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHHD) and the deputy chief of Laboratory of Developmental Pharmacology at NICHHD. Dr. Puga was the recipient of the Society of Toxicology Award in 1999 and of the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine Richard Akeson Award for Excellence in Teaching in 2002. Andrew Renwick is an emeritus professor at the University of Southampton, having retired from his position as professor of biochemical pharmacology in September 2004. Dr. Renwick earned a B.Sc. degree in zoology and chemistry in 1967, a Ph.D. in biochemistry in 1971, and a D.Sc. (medicine) in pharmacology with toxicology in 1991 from the University of London. He was appointed lecturer in biochemistry at St. Mary’s Hospital Medical School from 1969 until 1976. Dr. Renwick was senior lecturer in clinical pharmacology from 1976 to 1987 and was promoted to reader in clinical pharmacology in 1987 and professor of biochemical pharmacology in 1997.
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Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Dr. Renwick’s research interests focused on the absorption and metabolism of drugs and other foreign chemicals in humans following ingestion, inhalation, and dermal administration, in addition to species differences in the fate of chemicals in the body. His U.K. governmental advisory committee memberships have included the Medicines Commission, the Committee on Toxicity, and the Committee on Carcinogenicity of the Department of Health. In 2000, he was awarded an OBE (Officer [of the Order] of the British Empire) for services to U.K. Medicines Licensing Authority and Pharmacology and the Toxicology Forum George H. Scott Memorial Award in 2002. This award was presented in recognition of Dr. Renwick’s efforts to promote the advancement and application of the science of toxicology with government, academics, and industry. David Savitz is the Charles W. Bluhdorn Professor of Community and Preventive Medicine and the director of the Center of Excellence in Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Disease Prevention at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. He earned a B.A. in 1975 from Brandeis University. In 1978, Dr. Savitz earned an M.S. from the Department of Preventive Medicine and then continued his education at the University of Pittsburgh, earning a Ph.D from the School of Public Health’s Department of Epidemiology in 1982. He began his professional career as an assistant professor in the Department of Preventative Medicine at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. He joined the Department of Epidemiology at the University of North Carolina School of Public Health in 1985 and became chair of the department in 1996 and named Cary C. Boshamer Distinguished Professor in 2003. His research covers the areas of reproductive, environmental, and occupational epidemiology. Dr. Savitz is a member of many organizations and has served as president of the Society for Epidemiologic Research. Currently, Dr. Savitz is president of the Society for Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiologic Research. He has authored over 200 peer-reviewed journal articles and is an editor of Epidemiology. Allen Silverstone is professor of microbiology and immunology at SUNY– Upstate Medical University and adjunct professor of environmental medicine at the University of Rochester School of Medicine. Dr. Silverstone earned a B.A. from Reed College in 1965 and a Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1970. His research interests include the cellular and molecular biology of how dioxins, estrogens, and estrogenic compounds affect the immune system. Having identified the particular target cell in T-cell development that is affected by dioxin, Dr. Silverstone’s lab is now identifying the specific gene program activated by this agent in these cells. He was a member of the review panel and a consultant to the Science Advisory Board for EPA’s reassessment of dioxin and related compounds.
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Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Paul F. Terranova is professor of molecular and integrative physiology and obstetrics and gynecology. He is director of the Center for Reproductive Sciences at the University of Kansas Medical Center. He earned a B.S. in 1969 and an M.S. in 1971 in biology from McNeese State University and a Ph.D. from Louisiana State University in 1975. Dr. Terranova is an internationally recognized researcher in reproductive biology and has written or co-written more than 100 peer-reviewed original research papers, 19 chapters in books or symposium proceedings, and numerous articles in international scientific journals. He has served on numerous review panels of the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, and EPA. Dr. Terranova’s research focuses on factors regulating follicular development and ovulation. Recently, he has found that an environmental contaminant, dioxin, prevents follicular rupture and he is assessing the endocrine and molecular mechanisms by which this blockage occurs. Dr. Terranova has also developed a mouse model of ovarian cancer and is determining which growth regulators are involved in the spontaneous transformation of the ovarian surface epithelial cells into a malignant phenotype. Kimberly M. Thompson is an associate professor of risk analysis and decision science at the Harvard School of Public Health and Children’s Hospital Boston. Professor Thompson recently joined the systems dynamics group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sloan School of Management as a visitor. She earned a B.S. and an M.S. in chemical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1988 and 1989, respectively, and an Sc.D. in environmental health from Harvard School of Health in 1995. Her research interests focus on issues related to developing and applying quantitative methods for risk assessment and risk management in addition to consideration of the public-policy implications associated with uncertainty and variability in risk characterization. Dr. Thompson is a member of many organizations and societies, including the Society for Risk Analysis and the International Society for Exposure Analysis. She was a Sigma Xi Distinguished Lecturer for 2003-2005 and has been the recipient of several honors, including recognition in 2003 by the Society of Toxicology for an outstanding published paper demonstrating an application of risk assessment with fellow colleagues and the 2004 Society for Risk Analysis Chauncey Starr Award. Gary M. Williams is the director of environmental pathology and toxicology, head of the program on medicine, food, and chemical safety; and a professor of pathology at the New York Medical College since 1975. Dr. Williams earned a B.A. from Washington and Jefferson College in 1963 and an M.D. from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in 1967. Following his residency at Massachusetts General Hospital, Dr. Williams
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Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment began his career as assistant professor in the Department of Pathology at Temple University School of Medicine in 1971. He is board certified in pathology and toxicology. Dr. Williams’ research focuses on mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis and risk assessment. He has served on numerous working groups and committees of the NRC, EPA, International Agency for Research on Cancer, and World Health Organization. He has received many honors, including the Arnold J. Lehman and Enhancement of Animal Welfare Awards from the Society of Toxicology, and was elected fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists (U.K.). Yiliang Zhu is a professor and director of the biostatistics Ph.D. program and the Center for Collaborative Research in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of South Florida. Dr. Zhu earned a B.S. in computer science and applied mathematics from Shanghai University of Science and Technology (1982), an M.S. in statistics from Queen’s University (1987), and a Ph.D. in statistics from the University of Toronto (1992). Dr. Zhu’s research includes benchmark dose methods, dose response and PBPK modeling, and general methods in health risk assessment. Dr. Zhu has served on several EPA committees, including the Peer Review Committee on Neurobehavioral Dose-Response and Benchmark Method Guidance, Peer Review Committee on Benchmark Dose Software, Toxicological Review for 2-Methylnaphthalene, STAR Program Grant Review Committee for Global Change for Aquatic Ecosystems, and Peer Review Committee on Benchmark Doses Technical Guidance Document. Dr. Zhu is a member of the Advisory Committee on Organ Transplantation to the secretary of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.