References

Abraham, K., O. Papke, A. Gross, O. Kordonouri, S. Wiegand, U. Wahn, and H. Helge. 1998. Time course of PCDD/PCDF/PCB concentrations in breast-feeding mothers and their infants. Chemosphere 37(9-12):1731-1741.

Alaluusua, S., P.L. Lukinmaa, T. Vartiainen, M. Partanen, J. Torppa, and J. Tuomisto. 1996. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via mother's milk may cause developmental defects in the child's teeth. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 1(3):193-197.

Alaluusua, S., P.L. Lukinmaa, J. Torppa, J. Tuomisto, and T. Vartiainen. 1999. Developing teeth as biomarker of dioxin exposure. Lancet 353(9148):206.

Allen, J.R., D.A. Barsotti, J.P. VanMiller, L.J. Abrahamson, and J.J. Lalich. 1977. Morphological changes in monkeys consuming a diet containing low levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 15(5):401-410.

Amakura, Y., T. Tsutsumi, M. Nakamura, H. Kitagawa, J. Fujino, K. Sasaki, T. Yoshida, and M. Toyoda. 2002. Preliminary screening of the inhibitory effect of food extracts on activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 25(2):272-274.

Andersson, P., J. McGuire, C. Rubio, K. Gradin, M.L. Whitelaw, S. Pettersson, A. Hanberg, and L. Poellinger. 2002. A constitutively active dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor induces stomach tumors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99(15):9990-9995.

Antkiewicz, D.S., C.G. Burns, S.A. Carney, R.E. Peterson, and W. Heideman. 2005. Heart malformation is an early response to TCDD in embryonic zebrafish. Toxicol. Sci. 84(2): 368-377.

Anttila, S., X.D. Lei, E. Elovaara, A. Karjalainen, W. Sun, H. Vainio, and O. Hankinson. 2000. An uncommon phenotype of poor inducibility of CYP1A1 in human lung is not ascribable to polymorphisms in the AHR, ARNT, or CYP1A1 genes. Pharmacogenetics 10(8):741-751.

Astroff, B., T. Zacharewski, S. Safe, M.P. Arlotto, A. Parkinson, P. Thomas, and W. Levin. 1988. 6-Methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonist: Inhibition of the induction of rat cytochrome P-450 isozymes and related monooxygenase activities. Mol. Pharmacol. 33(2):231-236.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment References Abraham, K., O. Papke, A. Gross, O. Kordonouri, S. Wiegand, U. Wahn, and H. Helge. 1998. Time course of PCDD/PCDF/PCB concentrations in breast-feeding mothers and their infants. Chemosphere 37(9-12):1731-1741. Alaluusua, S., P.L. Lukinmaa, T. Vartiainen, M. Partanen, J. Torppa, and J. Tuomisto. 1996. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via mother's milk may cause developmental defects in the child's teeth. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 1(3):193-197. Alaluusua, S., P.L. Lukinmaa, J. Torppa, J. Tuomisto, and T. Vartiainen. 1999. Developing teeth as biomarker of dioxin exposure. Lancet 353(9148):206. Allen, J.R., D.A. Barsotti, J.P. VanMiller, L.J. Abrahamson, and J.J. Lalich. 1977. Morphological changes in monkeys consuming a diet containing low levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 15(5):401-410. Amakura, Y., T. Tsutsumi, M. Nakamura, H. Kitagawa, J. Fujino, K. Sasaki, T. Yoshida, and M. Toyoda. 2002. Preliminary screening of the inhibitory effect of food extracts on activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 25(2):272-274. Andersson, P., J. McGuire, C. Rubio, K. Gradin, M.L. Whitelaw, S. Pettersson, A. Hanberg, and L. Poellinger. 2002. A constitutively active dioxin/aryl hydrocarbon receptor induces stomach tumors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99(15):9990-9995. Antkiewicz, D.S., C.G. Burns, S.A. Carney, R.E. Peterson, and W. Heideman. 2005. Heart malformation is an early response to TCDD in embryonic zebrafish. Toxicol. Sci. 84(2): 368-377. Anttila, S., X.D. Lei, E. Elovaara, A. Karjalainen, W. Sun, H. Vainio, and O. Hankinson. 2000. An uncommon phenotype of poor inducibility of CYP1A1 in human lung is not ascribable to polymorphisms in the AHR, ARNT, or CYP1A1 genes. Pharmacogenetics 10(8):741-751. Astroff, B., T. Zacharewski, S. Safe, M.P. Arlotto, A. Parkinson, P. Thomas, and W. Levin. 1988. 6-Methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonist: Inhibition of the induction of rat cytochrome P-450 isozymes and related monooxygenase activities. Mol. Pharmacol. 33(2):231-236.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 1998. Toxicological Profile for Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. December 1998 [online]. Available: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp104-p.pdf [accessed July 5, 2005]. ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry). 2000. Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. November 2000 [online]. Available: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp17.html [accessed Sept. 2, 2005]. Axmon, A., L. Rylander, U. Stromberg, and L. Hagmar. 2004. Altered menstrual cycles in women with a high dietary intake of persistent organochlorine compounds. Chemosphere 56(8):813-819. Aylward, L.L., R.C. Brunet, G. Carrier, S.M. Hays, C.A. Cushing, L.L. Needham, D.G. Patterson, Jr., P.M. Gerthoux, P. Brambilla, and P. Mocarelli. 2005. Concentration-dependent TCDD elimination kinetics in humans: Toxicokinetic modeling for moderately to highly exposed adults from Seveso, Italy, and Vienna, Austria, and impact on dose estimates for the NIOSH cohort. J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 15(1):51-65. Baars, A.J., M.I. Bakker, R.A. Baumann, P.E. Boon, J.L. Freijer, L.A. Hoogenboom, R. Hoogerbrugge, J.D. van Klaveren, A.K. Liem, W.A. Traag, and J. de Vries. 2004. Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs: Occurrence and dietary intake in The Netherlands. Toxicol. Lett. 151(1):51-61. Bailey, G.S., J.D. Hendricks, D.W. Shelton, J.E. Nixon, and N.E. Pawlowski. 1987. Enhancement of carcinogenesis by the natural anticarcinogen indole-3-carbinol. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 78(5):931-934. Bannister, R., D. Davis, T. Zacharewski, I. Tizard, and S. Safe. 1987. Aroclor 1254 as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonist: Effects on enzyme induction and immunotoxicity. Toxicology 46(1):29-42. Bannister, R., L. Biegel, D. Davis, B. Astroff, and S. Safe. 1989. 6-Methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonist in C57BL/6 mice. Toxicology 54(2):139-150. Barsotti, D.A., L.J. Abrahamson, and J.R. Allen. 1979. Hormonal alterations in female rhesus monkeys fed a diet containing 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 21(4-5):463-469. Becher, H., K. Steindorf, and D. Flesch-Janys. 1998. Quantitative cancer risk assessment for dioxins using an occupational cohort. Environ. Health Perspect. 106(Suppl. 2):663-670. Bertazzi, P.A., I. Bernucci, G. Brambilla, D. Consonni, and A.C. Pesatori. 1998. The Seveso studies on early and long-term effects of dioxin exposure: A review. Environ. Health Perspect. 106(Suppl. 2):625-633. Bhattacharyya, K.K., P.B. Brake, S.E. Eltom, S.A. Otto, and C.R. Jefcoate. 1995. Identification of a rat adrenal cytochrome P450 active in polycyclic hydrocarbon metabolism as rat CYP1B1. Demonstration of a unique tissue-specific pattern of hormonal and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-linked regulation. J. Biol. Chem. 270(19):11595-11602. Biegel, L., M. Harris, D. Davis, R. Rosengren, L. Safe, and S. Safe. 1989. 2,2'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl as a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin antagonist in C57BL/6J mice. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 97(3):561-571. Birmingham, B. 1990. Analysis of PCDD and PCDF patterns in soil samples: Use in the estimation of the risk of exposure. Chemosphere 20(7-9):807-814. Birnbaum, L.S., and L.A. Couture. 1988. Disposition of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) in male rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 93(1):22-30.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Birnbaum, L.S., R.E. Morrissey, and M.W. Harris. 1991. Teratogenic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrabromodibenzo--dioxin and three polybrominated dibenzofurans in C57BL/6N mice. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 107(1):141-152. Birnbaum, L.S., D.F. Staskal, and J.J. Diliberto. 2003. Health effects of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and dibenzofurans (PBDFs). Environ. Int. 29(6):855-860. Blanck, H.M., M. Marcus, C. Rubin, P.E. Tolbert, V.S. Hertzberg, A.K. Henderson, and R.H. Zhang. 2002. Growth in girls exposed in utero and postnatally to polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls. Epidemiology 13(2):205-210. Bradfield, C.A., and A. Poland. 1988. A competitive binding assay for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and related ligands of the Ah receptor. Mol. Pharmacol. 34(5): 682-688. Breivik, K., A. Sweetman, J.M. Pacyna, and K.C. Jones. 2002a. Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners - a mass balance approach. 1. Global production and consumption. Sci. Total Environ. 290(1-3):181-198. Breivik, K., A. Sweetman, J.M. Pacyna, and K.C. Jones. 2002b. Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners - a mass balance approach. 2. Emissions. Sci. Total Environ. 290(1-3):199-224. Brown, M.M., U.A. Schneider, J.R. Petrulis, and N.J. Bunce. 1994. Additive binding of polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to the murine hepatic Ah receptor. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 129(2):243-251. Brzuzy, L.P., and R.A. Hites. 1995. Estimating the atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from soils. Environ. Sci. Technol. 29(8):2090-2098. Brzuzy, L.P., and R.A. Hites. 1996. Global mass balance for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Environ. Sci. Technol. 30(6):1797-1804. Bueno de Mesquita, H.B., G. Doornbos, D.A. Van der Kuip, M. Kogevinas, and R. Winkelmann. 1993. Occupational exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols and cancer mortality in the Netherlands. Am. J. Ind. Med. 23(2):289-300. Burleson, G.R., H. Lebrec, Y.G. Yang, J.D. Ibanes, K.N. Pennington, and L.S. Birnbaum. 1996. Effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on influenza virus host resistance in mice. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 29(1):40-47. Busser, M.T., and W.K. Lutz. 1987. Stimulation of DNA synthesis in rat and mouse liver by various tumor promoters. Carcinogenesis 8(10):1433-1437. Carney, S.A., R.E. Peterson, and W. Heideman. 2004. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator pathway causes developmental toxicity through a CYP1A-independent mechanism in zebrafish. Mol. Pharmacol. 66(3):512-521. Cauchi, S., I. Stucker, S. Cenee, P. Kremers, P. Beaune, and L. Massaad-Massade. 2003. Structure and polymorphisms of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AhRR) gene in a French population: Relationship with CYP1A1 inducibility and lung cancer. Pharmacogenetics 13(6):339-347. CDC (Centers for Disease Control). 1988. Health status of Vietnam veterans. II. Physical health. JAMA 259(18):2708-2714. CDEP (Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection). 1988. Measurement of Selected Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans in Ambient Air in the Vicinity of Wallingford, Connecticut. Project No. 7265-001-004. Prepared for Air Compliance Unit, Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, Hartford, CT, by ERT, Concord, MA. July 8, 1988. CDEP (Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection). 1995. Ambient Monitoring for PCDDs/PCDFs in Connecticut-Fall 1993 through Summer 1994, Final report. ENSR Document No. 6350-009-500-R1. ENSR, Acton, MA. September 1995.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment CEBM (Centre for Evidence Based Medicine). 2005. Levels of Evidence and Grades of Recommendation. Oxford-Centre for Evidence Based Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Headington, Oxford, UK [online]. Available: http://www.cebm.net/levels_of_evidence.asp [accessed July 8, 2005]. CFSAN (Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition). 2005a. Dioxin Analysis Results/ Exposure Estimates. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition-Office of Plant and Dairy Foods, U.S. Food and Drug Administration [online]. Available: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/dioxdata.html [accessed July 15, 2005]. CFSAN (Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition). 2005b. PCDD/PCDF Exposure Estimates. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition-Office of Plant and Dairy Foods, U.S. Food and Drug Administration [online]. Available: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~lrd/dioxee.html [accessed July 15, 2005]. Chaffin, C.L., R.L. Stouffer, and D.M. Duffy. 1999. Gonadotropin and steroid regulation of steroid receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in macaque granulasa cells during the periovulatory interval. Endocrinology 140(10):4753-4760. Charnley, G., and J. Doull. 2005. Human exposure to dioxins from food, 1999-2002. Food Chem. Toxicol. 43(5):671-679. Chen, G., and N.J. Bunce. 2004. Interaction between halogenated aromatic compounds in the Ah receptor signal transduction pathway. Environ. Toxicol. 19(5):480-489. Chen, I., N. Harper, and S. Safe. 1995. Inhibition of TCDD-induced responses in B6C3F1 mice and hepat1c1c7 cells by indole-3-carbinol. Organohalogen Compounds 25:57-60. Chen, I., S. Safe, and L. Bjeldanes. 1996. Indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane as aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists and antagonists in T47D human breast cancer cells. Biochem. Pharmacol. 51(8):1069-1076. Cleverly, D., M. Monetti, L. Phillips, P. Cramer, M. Heit, S. McCarthy, K. O'Rourke, J. Stanley, and D. Winters. 1996. A time-trends study of the occurrences and levels of CDDs, CDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs in sediment cores from 11 geographically distributed lakes in the United States. Organohalogen Compounds 28:77-82. Cleverly, D.H., D. Winters, J. Ferrario, J. Schaum, G. Schweer, J. Buchert, C. Greene, A. Dupuy, and C. Byrne. 2000. The national dioxin air monitoring network (NDAMN): Results of the first year of atmospheric measurements of CDDs, CDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in rural and agricultural areas of the United States: June 1998-June 1999. Organohalogen Compounds 45:248-251 [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/ncea/pdfs/dioxin/dei/NDAMN_PAPER3a.pdf [accessed August 23, 2005]. Conolly, R.B., and M.E. Andersen. 1997. Hepatic foci in rats after diethylnitrosamine initiation and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin promotion: Evaluation of a quantitative two-cell model and of CYP 1A1/1A2 as a dosimeter. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 146(2):-281-293. Cousins, I.T., and D. Mackay. 2001. Strategies for including vegetation compartments in multimedia models. Chemosphere 44(4):643-654. Cousins, I.T., D. Mackay, and K.C. Jones. 1999a. Measuring and modeling the vertical distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds in soils. II. Model development. Chemosphere 39(14):2519-2534. Cousins, I.T., B. Gevao, and K.C. Jones. 1999b. Measuring and modeling the vertical distribution of semi-volatile organic compounds in soils. I. PCB and PAH soil core data. Chemosphere 39(14):2507-2518. Couture, L.A., M.R. Elwell, and L.S. Birnbaum. 1988. Dioxin-like effects observed in male rats following exposure to octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) during a 13-week study. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 93(1):31-46. Crump, K.S. 1984. A new method for determining allowable daily intakes. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 4(5):854-871.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Crump, K.S., R. Canady, and M. Kogevinas. 2003. Meta-analysis of dioxin cancer dose response for three occupational cohorts. Environ. Health Perspect. 111(5):681-687. Cummings, A.M., J.L. Metcalf, and L. Birnbaum. 1996. Promotion of endometriosis by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in rats and mice: Time-dose dependence and species comparison. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 138(1):131-139. Dashwood, R.H. 1998. Indole-3-carbinol: Anticarcinogen or tumor promoter in brassica vegetables? Chem. Biol. Interact. 110(1-2):1-5. Dashwood, R.H., A.T. Fong, D.E. Williams, J.D. Hendricks, and G.S. Bailey. 1991. Promotion of aflatoxin B1 carcinogenesis by the natural tumor modulator indole-3-carbinol: Influence of dose, duration, and intermittent exposure on indole-3-carbinol promotional potency. Cancer Res. 51(9):2362-2365. Dasmahapatra, A.K., B.A. Wimpee, A.L. Trewin, C.F. Wimpee, J.K. Ghorai, and R.J. Hutz. 2000. Demonstration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin attenuation of P450 steroidogenic enzyme mRNAs in rat granulosa cell in vitro by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 164(1-2):5-18. Davis, D., and S. Safe. 1988. Immunosuppressive activities of polychlorinated dibenzofuran congeners: Quantitative structure-activity relationships and interactive effects. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 94(1):141-149. DeCaprio, A.P., D.N. McMartin, P.W. O'Keefe, R. Rej, J.B. Silkworth, and L.S. Kaminsky. 1986. Subchronic oral toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the guinea pig: Comparisons with a PCB-containing transformer fluid pyrolysate. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 6(3):454-463. Della Porta, G., T.A. Dragani, and G. Sozzi. 1987. Carcinogenic effects of infantile and long-term 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment in the mouse. Tumori 73(2):99-107. Denison, M.S., and S.R. Nagy. 2003. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor by structurally diverse exogenous and endogenous chemicals. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 43: 309-334. Denison, M.S., A. Pandini, S.R. Nagy, E.P. Baldwin, and L. Bonati. 2002. Ligand binding and activation of the Ah receptor. Chem. Biol. Interact. 141(1-2):3-24. DeVito, M.J., T. Thomas, E. Martin, T.H. Umbreit, and M.A. Gallo. 1992. Antiestrogenic action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: Tissue-specific regulation of estrogen receptor in CD1 mice. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 113(2): 284-292. DeVito, M.J., J.J. Diliberto, D.G. Ross, M.G. Menache, and L.S. Birnbaum. 1997. Dose-response relationships for polyhalogenated dioxins and dibenzofurans following subchronic treatment in mice. I. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 enzyme activity in liver, lung, and skin. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 147(2):267-280. DeVito, M.J., D.G. Ross, A.E. Dupuy, Jr., J. Ferrario, D. McDaniel, and L.S. Birnbaum. 1998. Dose-response relationships for disposition and hepatic sequestration of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls following subchronic treatment in mice. Toxicol. Sci. 46(2):223-234. DeVito, M.J., L.S. Birnbaum, and N.J. Walker. 2003. The influence of chemical impurity on estimating relative potency factors for PCBs. Organohalogen Compounds 65:288-291. DiGiovanni, J., A. Viaje, D.L. Berry, T.J. Slaga, and M.R. Juchau. 1977. Tumor-initiating ability of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and Arochlor 1254 in the two-stage system of mouse skin carcinogenesis. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 18(5): 552-557. DOD (U.S. Department of Defense). 2005. Air Force Health Study, Final Report. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides 2002 Follow-up Examination Results May 2002 to March 2005. July 8, 2005 [online]. Available: http://www.brooks.af.mil/AFRL/HED/hedb/default.html [accessed July 29, 2005].

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Dong, W., H. Teraoka, K. Yamazaki, S. Tsukiyama, S. Imani, T. Imagawa, J.J. Stegeman, R.E. Peterson, and T. Hiraga. 2002. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity in the zebrafish embryo: Local circulation failure in the dorsal midbrain is associated with increased apoptosis. Toxicol. Sci. 69(1):191-201. Dong, W., H. Teraoka, Y. Tsujimoto, J.J. Stegeman, and T. Hiraga. 2004. Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in mesencephalic circulation failure and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Toxicol. Sci. 77(1):109-116. Eastin, W.C., J.K. Haseman, J.F. Mahler, and J.R. Bucher. 1998. The National Toxicology Program evaluation of genetically altered mice as predictive models for identifying carcinogens. Toxicol. Pathol. 26(4):461-473. Eaton, D.L., and C.D. Klaassen. 2001. Principles of toxicology. Pp. 11-34 in Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th Ed., C.D. Klaassen, ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Egeland, G.M., M.H. Sweeney, M.A. Fingerhut, K.K. Wille, T.M. Schnorr, and W.E. Halperin. 1994. Total serum testosterone and gonadotropins in workers exposed to dioxin. Am. J. Epidemiol. 139(3):272-281. Eisenberg, J.N.S., D.H. Bennett, and T.E. McKone. 1998. Chemical dynamics of persistent organic pollutants: A sensitivity analysis relating soil concentration levels to atmospheric emissions. Environ. Sci. Technol. 32(1):115-123. Ema, M., N. Ohe, M. Suzuki, J. Mimura, K. Sogawa, S. Ikawa, and Y. Fujii-Kuriyama. 1994. Dioxin binding activities of polymorphic forms of mouse and human aryl hydrocarbon receptors. J. Biol. Chem. 269(44):27337-27343. Emond, C., L.S. Birnbaum, and M.J. DeVito. 2004. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for developmental exposures to TCDD in the rat. Toxicol. Sci. 80(1):115-133. Enan, E., B. Lasley, D. Stewart, J. Overstreet, and C.A. VandeVoort. 1996a. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) modulates function of human luteinizing granulosa cells via cAMP signaling and early reduction of glucose transporting activity. Reprod. Toxicol. 10(3):191-198. Enan, E., F. Moran, C.A. VandeVoort, D.R. Stewart, J.W. Overstreet, and B.L. Lasley. 1996b. Mechanism of toxic action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in cultured human luteinized granulosa cells. Reprod. Toxicol. 10(6): 497-508. Enzmann, H., E. Bomhard, M. Iatropoulos, H.J. Ahr, G. Schlueter, and G.M. Williams. 1998. Short- and intermediate-term carcinogenicity testing: A review. Part 1. The prototypes mouse skin tumour assay and rat liver focus assay. Food Chem. Toxicol. 36(11): 979-995. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1985. Soil Screening Survey at Four Midwestern Sites. EPA 905/4-85-005. Environmental Services Division, Eastern District Office, Region V, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Westlake, OH. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987. Interim Procedures for Estimating Risks Associated with Exposures to Mixtures of Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (CDDs and CDFs). EPA/625/3-87/012. Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1992. National Study of Chemical Residues in Fish. EPA 823-R-92-008. Standards and Applied Science Division, Office of Science and Technology, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. September 1992. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1994. Health Assessment Document for 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds, Vols. I-III. External Review Draft. EPA/600/BP-92/001a,b,c Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. August 1994 [online]. Available: http://www.cqs.com/epa/health/ [accessed April 14, 2006].

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1996a. Columbus Waste-to-Energy Municipal Incinerator Dioxin Soil Sampling Project. Region V, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. April 1996. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Assessment of Thyroid Follicular Cell Tumors. EPA/630/R-97/002. Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC [online]. Available: http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?PrintVersion=True&deid= 13102 [accessed July 7, 2005]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2000a. Characterization of Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Soil Samples Collected from the Denver Front Range Area. Region VIII, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Denver, CO. October 2000. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2000b. Benchmark Dose Technical Guidance Document. External Review Draft. EPA/630/R-00/001. Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. October 2000 [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/nceawww1/pdfs/bmds/BMD-External_10_13_2000.pdf [accessed Sept. 1, 2005]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2002. Workshop on the Benefits of Reductions in Exposure to Hazardous Air Pollutants: Developing Best Estimates of Dose-Response Functions. EPA-SAB-EC-WKSHP-02-001. EPA Science Advisory Board, Washington, DC. January 2002 [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/science1/fiscal02.htm. [accessed July 6, 2005]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2003a. Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds. Part I: Estimating Exposure to Dioxin-Like Compounds. EPA/600/P-00/001Cb. NAS Review Draft. Exposure Assessment and Risk Characterization Group, National Center for Environmental Assessment-Washington Office, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. December 2003 [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/ncea/pdfs/dioxin/nas-review/#part1 [accessed July 5, 2005]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2003b. Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds. Part II: Health Assessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds. NAS Review Draft. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. December 2003 [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/ncea/pdfs/dioxin/nas-review/#part2 [accessed July 5, 2005]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2003c. Exposure and Human Health Reassessment of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds. Part III: Integrated Summary and Risk Characterization for 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) and Related Compounds. NAS Review Draft. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. December 2003 [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/ncea/pdfs/dioxin/nas-review/#part3 [accessed July 5, 2005]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2003d. Proposed OPPTS Science Policy: PPARα-Mediated Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rodents and Relevance to Human Health Risk Assessments. Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/oscpmont/sap/2003/december9/peroxisomeproliferatorsciencepolicypaper.pdf [accessed July 8, 2005].

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2004a. An Examination of EPA Risk Assessment Principles and Practices. Staff Paper Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by Members of the Risk Assessment Task Force. EPA/100/B-04/001. Office of the Science Advisor, U.S. Environmental Protection, Washington, DC. March 2004 [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/osa/ratf.htm [accessed Sept. 2, 2005]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2004b. Toxicological Review of Boron and Compounds. (CAS No. 7440-42-8) in Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). EPA 635/04/052. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. June 2004 [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/iris/toxreviews/0410-tr.pdf [accessed June 24, 2005]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005a. Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. EPA/630/P-03/001F. Risk Assessment Forum, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. March 2005 [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/iriswebp/iris/cancer032505.pdf [accessed July 6, 2005]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005b. The Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United States: The Year 2000 Update. EPA/600/P-03/002A. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/ncea/pdfs/dioxin/2k-update [accessed June 29, 2005]. EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005c. Air Quality Criteria for Lead (First External Review Draft), Vol. I . EPA/600/R-05/144aA. National Center for Environmental Assessment-RTP Office, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC [online]. Available: http://www.myspy.us/cgi-bin/nph-paidmember.cgi/111011A/http/cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=141779 [accessed April 10, 2006]. EPA SAB (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Science Advisory Board). 2001. Dioxin Reassessment-An SAB Review of the Office of Research and Development's Reassessment of Dioxin. Review of the Revised Sections (Dose Response Modeling, Integrated Summary, Risk Characterization, and Toxicity Equivalency Factors) of the EPA's Reassessment of Dioxin by the Dioxin Reassessment Review Subcommittee of the EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB). EPA-SAB-EC-01-006. Science Advisory Board, Washington, DC. May 2001 [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/atw/ec01006.pdf [accessed Sept. 2, 2005]. Eskenazi, B., P. Mocarelli, M. Warner, S. Samuels, P. Vercellini, D. Olive, L. Needham, D. Patterson, and P. Brambilla. 2000. Seveso Women's Health Study: A study of the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on reproductive health. Chemosphere 40(9-11): 1247-1253. Eskenazi, B., P. Mocarelli, M. Warner, S. Samuels, P. Vercellini, D. Olive, L. L. Needham, D.G. Patterson, Jr., P. Brambilla, N. Gavoni, S. Casalini, S. Panazza, W. Turner, and P.M. Gerthoux. 2002a. Serum dioxin concentrations and endometriosis: A cohort study in Seveso, Italy. Environ. Health Perspect. 110(7):629-634. Eskenazi, B., M. Warner, P. Mocarelli, S. Samuels, L.L. Needham, D.G. Patterson, Jr., S. Lippman, P. Vercellini, P.M. Gerthoux, P. Brambilla, and D. Olive. 2002b. Serum dioxin concentrations and menstrual cycle characteristics. Am. J. Epidemiol. 156(4): 383-392. Eskenazi, B., P. Mocarelli, M. Warner, W.Y. Chee, P.M. Gerthoux, S. Samuels, L.L. Needham, and D.G. Patterson, Jr. 2003. Maternal serum dioxin levels and birth outcomes in women of Seveso, Italy. Environ. Health Perspect. 111(7):947-953. Evans, J.S., G.M. Gray, R.L. Sielken, Jr., A.E. Smith, C. Valdez-Flores, and J.D. Graham. 1994a. Use of probabilistic expert judgment in uncertainty analysis of carcinogenic potency. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 20(1 Pt 1):15-36.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Evans, J.S., J.D. Graham, G.M. Gray, and R.L. Sielken, Jr. 1994b. A distributional approach to characterizing low-dose cancer risk. Risk Anal. 14(1):25-34. Faustman, E.F., and G.S. Omenn. 2001. Risk assessment. Pp. 83-104 in Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 6th Ed, C.D. Klaassen, ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Farrell, K., L. Safe, and S. Safe. 1987. Synthesis and aryl hydrocarbon receptor binding properties of radiolabeled polychlorinated dibenzofuran congeners. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 259(1):185-195. FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 1997. FDA Requests That Ball Clay Not Be Used in Animal Feeds. CVM Update, October 14, 1997. Center for Veterinary Medicine, U.S. Food and Drug Administration [online]. Available: http://www.fda.gov/cvm/CVM_Updates/ballclay.html [accessed April 4, 2006]. Feeley, M.M. 1995. Workshop on Perinatal Exposure to Dioxin-like Compounds. III. Endocrine effects. Environ. Health Perspect. 103(Suppl. 2):147-150. Fernandez-Salguero, P.M., D.M. Hilbert, S. Rudikoff, J.M. Ward, and F.J. Gonzalez. 1996. Aryl-hydrocarbon receptor-deficient mice are resistant to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced toxicity. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 140(1):173-179. Ferrario, J., C. Byrne, M. Lorber, P. Saunders, W. Leese, A. Dupuy, D. Winters, D. Cleverly, J. Schaum, P. Pinsky, C. Deyrup, R. Ellis, and J. Walcott. 1997. A statistical survey of dioxin-like compounds in the United States poultry fat. Organohalogen Compounds 32:245-251. Fiedler, H., K.R. Cooper, S. Bergek, M. Hjelt, and C. Rappe. 1997. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in food samples collected in Southern Mississippi, USA. Chemosphere 34(5-7):1411-1419. Fingerhut, M.A., W.E. Halperin, D.A. Marlow, L.A. Piacitelli, P.A. Honchar, M.H. Sweeney, A.L. Greife, P.A. Dill, K. Steenland, and A.J. Suruda. 1990. Mortality among U.S. Workers Employed in the Production of Chemicals Contaminated with 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). NIOSH/00197158. Industrywide Studies Branch, Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Cincinnati, OH. Fingerhut, M.A., W.E. Halperin, D.A. Marlow, L.A. Piacitelli, P.A. Honchar, M.H. Sweeney, A.L. Greife, P.A. Dill, K. Steenland, and A.J. Suruda. 1991. Cancer mortality in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. N. Engl. J. Med. 324(4):212-218. Finley, B.L., K.T. Connor, and P.K. Scott. 2003. Use of toxic equivalency factor distributions in probabilistic risk assessments for dioxins, furans and PCBs. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A 66(6):533-550. Flesch-Janys, D., J. Berger, P. Gurn, A. Manz, S. Nagel, H. Waltsgott, and J.H. Dwyer. 1995. Exposure to polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) and mortality in a cohort of workers from a herbicide-producing plant in Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany. Am. J. Epidemiol. 142(11):1165-1175. Flesch-Janys, D., H. Becher, P. Gurn, D. Jung, J. Konietzko, A. Manz, and O. Papke. 1996. Elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in occupationally exposed persons. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 47(4):363-378. Flesch-Janys, D., K. Steindorf, P. Gurn, and H. Becher. 1998. Estimation of the cumulated exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans and standardized mortality ratio analysis of cancer mortality by dose in an occupationally exposed cohort. Environ. Health Perspect. 106(Suppl. 2):655-662. Fox, T.R., L.L. Best, S.M. Goldsworthy, J.J. Mills, and T.L. Goldsworthy. 1993. Gene expression and cell proliferation in rat liver after 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure. Cancer Res. 53(10 Suppl.):2265-2271.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Fries, G.F., and G.S. Marrow. 1975. Retention and excretion of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin by rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 23(2):265-269. FSIS (Food Safety and Inspection Service). 2005. Dioxins and Dioxins-Like Compounds in the U.S. Domestic Meat and Poultry Supply. Food Safety and Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture [online]. Available: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Dioxin_Report_0605.pdf. [accessed July 15, 2005]. Gallo, M.A., E.J. Hesse, G.J. MacDonald, T.H. Umbreit. 1986. Interactive effects of estradiol and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on hepatic cytochrome P-450 and mouse uterus. Toxicol. Lett. 32(1-2):123-132. Gao, X., D.S. Son, P.F. Terranova, and K.K. Rozman. 1999. Toxic equivalency factors of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in an ovulation model: Validation of the toxic equivalency concept for one aspect of endocrine disruption. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 157(2): 107-116. Gao, X., B.K. Petroff, K.K. Rozman, and P.F. Terranova. 2000a. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) partially reverses the inhibitory effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on ovulation in the immature gonadotropin-treated rat. Toxicology 147(1): 15-22. Gao, X., P.F. Terranova, and K.K. Rozman. 2000b. Effects of polychlorinated dibenzofurans, biphenyls, and their mixture with dibenzo-p-dioxins on ovulation in the gonadotropin-primed immature rat: Support for the toxic equivalency concept. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 163(2):115-124. Gao, X., K. Mizuyachi, P.F. Terranova, and K.K. Rozman. 2001. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin decreases responsiveness of the hypothalamus to estradiol as a feedback inducer of preovulatory gonadotropin secretion in the immature gonadotropin-primed rat. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 170(3):181-190. Gaylor, D.W., and W. Slikker, Jr. 1990. Risk assessment for neurotoxic effects. Neurotoxicology 11(2):211-218. Gaylor, D.W., and W. Slikker. 1992. Risk assessment for neurotoxicants. Pp. 331-343 in Neurotoxicology, H. Tilson, and C. Mitchell, eds. New York: Raven Press. Gehrs, B.C., and R.J. Smialowicz. 1999. Persistent suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity in adult F344 rats after perinatal exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Toxicology 134(1):79-88. Gerlowski, L.E., and R.K. Jain. 1983. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling: Principles and applications. J. Pharm. Sci. 72(10):1103-1127. Geyer, H.J., I. Scheuntert, K. Rapp, A. Kettrup, F. Korte, H. Greim, and K. Rozman. 1990. Correlation between acute toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and total body fat content in mammals. Toxicology 65(1-2):97-107. Giavini, E., M. Prati, and C. Vismara. 1983. Embryotoxic effects of 2,3,7,8 tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin administered to female rats before mating. Environ. Res. 31(1): 105-110. Gladen, B.C., N.B. Ragan, and W.J. Rogan. 2000. Pubertal growth and development and prenatal and lactational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene. J. Pediatr. 136(4):490-496. Goldman, J.M., S.C. Laws, S.K. Balchak, R.L. Cooper, and R.J. Kavlock. 2000. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: Prepubertal exposures and effects on sexual maturation and thyroid activity in the female rat. A focus on the EDSTAC recommendations. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 30(2):135-196. Goodman, D.G., and R.M. Sauer. 1992. Hepatotoxicity and carcinogenicity in female Sprague-Dawley rats treated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD): A pathology working group reevaluation. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 15(3):245-252.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Grady, A.W., D.L. Fabacher, G. Frame, and B.L. Steadman. 1992. Morphological deformities in brown bullheads administered dietary β-naphthoflavone. J. Aquat. Anim. Health 4(1):7-16. Graham, M.J., G.W. Lucier, P. Linko, R.R. Maronpot, and J.A. Goldstein. 1988. Increases in cytochrome P-450 mediated 17 beta-estradiol 2-hydroxylase activity in rat liver microsomes after both acute administration and subchronic administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model. Carcinogenesis 9(11):1935-1941. Gray, K.A., M.A. Klebanoff, J.W. Brock, H. Zhou, R. Darden, L. Needham, and M.P. Longnecker. 2005. In utero exposure to background levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and cognitive functioning among school-age children. Am. J. Epidemiol. 162(1):17-26. Grubbs, W.D., W.H. Wolfe, J.E. Michalek, D.E. Williams, M.B. Lustik, A.S. Brockman, S.C. Henderson, F.R. Burnett, R.J. Land, D.J. Osborne, V.K. Rocconi, M.E. Schreiber, J.C. Miner, G.L. Henriksen, and J.A. Swaby. 1995. Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. AL-TR-920107. Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA. Guo, S.W. 2004. The link between exposure to dioxin and endometriosis: A critical reappraisal of primate data. Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 57(3):157-173. Guzelian, P.S., M.S. Victoroff, N.C. Halmes, R.C. James, and C.P. Guzelian. 2005. Evidence-based toxicology: A comprehensive framework for causation. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 24(4):161-201. Hamm, J.T., C.Y. Chen, and L.S. Birnbaum. 2003. A mixture of dioxins, furans, and non-ortho PCBs based upon consensus toxic equivalency factors produces dioxin-like reproductive effects. Toxicol. Sci. 74(1):182-191. Harper, N., X. Wang, H. Liu, and S. Safe. 1994. Inhibition of estrogen-induced progesterone receptor in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells by aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists. Mol. Cell Endocrinol. 104(1):47-55. Harper, P.A., R.D. Prokipcak, L.E. Bush, C.L. Golas, and A.B. Okey. 1991. Detection and characterization of the Ah receptor for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line LS180. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 290(1):27-36. Harper, P.A., J.Y. Wong, M.S. Lam, and A.B. Okey. 2002. Polymorphisms in the human AH receptor. Chem. Biol. Interact. 141(1-2):161-187. Harrad, S.J., and K.C. Jones. 1992. A source inventory and budget for chlorinated dioxins and furans in the United Kingdom environment. Sci. Total Environ. 126(1-2):89-107. Harris, M., T. Zacharewski, B. Astroff, and S. Safe. 1989. Partial antagonism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase by 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran: Mechanistic studies. Mol. Pharmacol. 35(5): 729-735. Hayward, D.G., and P.M. Bolger. 2000. PCDD and PCDF levels in baby food made from chicken produced before and after 1997 in the United States. Organohalogen Compounds 47:345-348. Heimler, I., A.L. Trewin, C.L. Chaffin, R.G. Rawlins, and R.J. Hutz. 1998a. Modulation of ovarian follicle maturation and effects on apoptotic cell death in Holtzman rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in utero and lactationally. Reprod. Toxicol. 12(1):69-73. Heimler, I., R.G. Rawlins, H. Owen, and R.J. Hutz. 1998b. Dioxin perturbs, in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, steroid secretion, and induces apoptosis of human luteinized granulosa cells. Endocrinology 139(10):4373-4379. Henriksen, G.L., N.S. Ketchum, J.E. Michalek, and J.A. Swaby. 1997. Serum dioxin and diabetes mellitis in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand. Epidemiology 8(3):252-258.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Pence, B.C., F. Buddingh, and S.P. Yang. 1986. Multiple dietary factors in the enhancement of dimethylhydrazine carcinogenesis: Main effect of indole-3-carbinol. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 77(1):269-276. Pesatori, A.C., D. Consonni, S. Bachetti, C. Zocchetti, M. Bonzini, A. Baccarelli, and P.A. Bertazzi. 2003. Short- and long-term morbidity and mortality in the population exposed to dioxin after the “Seveso accident.” Ind. Health 41(3):127-138. Peters, A.K., K. van Londen, A. Bergman, J. Bohonowych, M.S. Denison, M. van den Berg, and J.T. Sanderson. 2004. Effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers on basal and TCDD-induced ethoxyresorufin activity and cytochrome P450-1A1 expression in MCF-7, HepG2, and H4IIE cells. Toxicol. Sci. 82(2):488-496. Petroff, B.K., X. Gao, K.K. Rozman, and P.F. Terranova. 2000. Interaction of estradiol and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in an ovulation model: Evidence for systemic potentiation and local ovarian effects. Reprod. Toxicol. 14(3):247-255. Petroff, B.K., K.F. Roby, X. Gao, D. Son, S. Williams, D. Johnson, K.K. Rozman, and P.F. Terranova. 2001. A review of mechanisms controlling ovulation with implications for the anovulatory effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in rodents. Toxicology 158(3):91-107. Petrulis, J.R., and N.J. Bunce. 2000. Competitive behavior in the interactive toxicology of halogenated aromatic compounds. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. 14(2):73-81. Pluim, H.J., J.J. de Vijlder, K. Olie, J.H. Kok, T. Vulsma, D.A. van Tijn, J.W. van der Slikke, and J.G. Koppe. 1993. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to chlorinated dioxins and furans on human neonatal thyroid hormone concentrations. Environ. Health Perspect. 101(6):504-508. Pohjanvirta, R., M. Unkila, J.T. Tuomisto, O. Vuolteenaho, J. Leppaluoto, and J. Tuomisto. 1993. Effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on plasma and tissue beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in the most TCDD-susceptible and the most TCDD-resistant rat strain. Life Sci. 53(19):1479-1487. Pohjanvirta, R., M. Korkalainen, J. McGuire, U. Simanainen, R. Juvonen, J.T. Tuomisto, M. Unkila, M. Viluksela, J. Bergman, L. Poellinger, and J. Tuomisto. 2002. Comparison of acute toxicities of indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in TCDD-sensitive rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 40(7):1023-1032. Poiger, M., and C. Schlatter. 1986. Pharmacokinetics of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in man. Chemosphere 15(9-12):1489-1494. Poland, A., and E. Glover. 1979. An estimate of the maximum in vivo covalent binding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin to rat liver protein, ribosomal RNA, and DNA. Cancer Res. 39(9):3341-3344. Poland, A., D. Palen, and E. Glover. 1982. Tumour promotion by TCDD in skin of HRS/J hairless mice. Nature 300(5889):271-273. Poland, A., D. Palen, and E. Glover. 1994. Analysis of the four alleles of the murine aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Mol. Pharmacol. 46(5):915-921. Portier, C., D. Hoel, and J. van Ryzin. 1984. Statistical analysis of the carcinogenesis bioassay data relating to the risks from exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Pp. 99-120 in Public Health Risks of the Dioxins, W.W. Lowrance, ed. Los Altos, CA: W. Kaufmann, Inc. Portier, C.J., and M.C. Kohn. 1996. A biologically-based model for the carcinogenic effects of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Organohalogen Compounds 29:222-227. Portier, C.J., C.D. Sherman, M. Kohn, L. Edler, A. Kopp-Schneider, R.M. Maronpot, and G. Lucier. 1996. Modeling the number and size of hepatic focal lesions following exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 138(1):20-30.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Powell, D.C., R.J. Aulerich, J.C. Meadows, D.E. Tillitt, K.L. Stromborg, T.J. Kubiak, J.P. Giesy, and S.J. Bursian. 1997. Organochlorine contaminants in double-crested cormorants from Green Bay, Wisconsin. II. Effects of an extract derived from cormorant eggs on the chicken embryo. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 32(3):316-322. Prasch, A.L., H. Teraoka, S.A. Carney, W. Dong, T. Hiraga, J.J. Stegeman, W. Heideman, and R.E. Peterson. 2003. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor 2 mediates 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin developmental toxicity in zebrafish. Toxicol. Sci. 76(1):138-150. Puga, A., D.W. Nebert, and F. Carrier. 1992. Dioxin induces expression of c-fos and c-jun proto-oncogenes and a large increase in transcription factor AP-1. DNA Cell Biol. 11(4):269-281. Puga, A., A. Hoffer, S. Zhou, J.M. Bohm, G.D. Leikauf, and H.G. Shertzer. 1997. Sustained increase in intracellular free calcium and activation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in mouse hepatoma cells treated with dioxin. Biochem. Pharmacol. 54(12):1287-1296. Ramadoss, P., and G.H. Perdew. 2004. Use of 2-azido-3-[ 125I]iodo-7,8-dibromodibenzo-p-dioxin as a probe to determine the relative ligand affinity of human versus mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor in cultured cells. Mol. Pharmacol. 66(1):129-136. Randerath, K., K.L. Putman, E. Randerath, G. Mason, M. Kelley, and S. Safe. 1988. Organ-specific effects of long term feeding of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on I-compounds in hepatic and renal DNA of female Sprague-Dawley rats. Carcinogenesis 9(12):2285-2289. Rao, M.S., V. Subbarao, J.D. Prasad, and D.G. Scarpelli. 1988. Carcinogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the Syrian golden hamster. Carcinogenesis 9(9):1677-1679. Rappe, C. 1991. Sources of human exposure to CDDs and PCDFs. Pp. 121-129 in Biological Basis for Risk Assessment of Dioxin and Related Compounds, M.A. Gallo, R.J. Scheuplein, and K.A. van der Heijden, eds. Banbury Report No. 35. Plainview, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Reed, L.W., G.T. Hunt, B.E. Maisel, and M. Hoyt, D. Keefe, and P. Hackney. 1990. Baseline assessment of PCDDs/PCDFs in the vicinity of the Elk River, Minnesota generating station. Chemosphere 21(1-2):159-171. Revich, B.A. 2002. Chemical substances in the Russian urban environment: Hazard to human health and prospects for its prevention [in Russian]. Vestn. Ross. Akad. Med. Nauk. (9):45-49. Richards, J.S., T. Jahnsen, L. Hedin, J. Lifka, S. Ratoosh, J.M. Durica, and N.B. Goldring. 1987. Ovarian follicular development: From physiology to molecular biology. Recent. Prog. Horm. Res. 43:231-276. Roberts, E.A., K.C. Johnson, P.A. Harper, and A.B. Okey. 1990. Characterization of the Ah receptor mediating aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction in the human liver cell line Hep G2. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 276(2):442-450. Roby, K.F. 2001. Alterations in follicle development, steroidogenesis, and gonadotropin receptor binding in a model of ovulatory blockade. Endocrinology 142(6):2328-2335. Roegner, R.H., W.D. Grubbs, M.B. Lustik, A.S. Brockman, and S.C. Henderson. 1991. Air Force Health Study: An Epidemiological Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides: Serum Dioxin Analysis of 1987 Examination Results. NTIS AD A-237-516. Prepared by Science Applications International Corporation, McLean, VA, for Human Systems Division, Epidemiology Research Division Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks Air Force Base, TX. Rogowski, D., and W. Yake. 1999. Addendum to Final Report: Screening Survey for Metals and Dioxins in Fertilizer Products and Soils in Washington State. Dioxins in Washington State Agricultural Soils. Ecology Pub. No. 99-333. Environmental Assessment Program, Washington State Department of Ecology, Olympia, WA. November 1999 [online]. Available: http://www.ecy.wa.gov/biblio/99333.html [accessed August 22, 2005].

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Rogowski, D., S. Golding, D. Bowhay, and S. Singleton. 1999. Final Report: Screening Survey for Metals and Dioxins in Fertilizer Products and Soils in Washington State. Ecology Pub. No. 99-309. Environmental Assessment Program, Washington State Department of Ecology, Olympia, WA. January 1999 [online]. Available: http://www.ecy.wa.gov/biblio/99309.html [accessed August 23, 2005]. Ross, E.M., and T.P. Kenakin. 2001. Pharmacokinetics: Mechanisms of drug action and the relationship between drug concentration and effect. Pp. 31-43 in Goodman & Gilman’s the Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 10th Ed., J.G. Hardman, and L.E. Limbird, eds. New York: McGraw-Hill. Rozman, K.K., W.L. Roth, H. Greim, B.U. Stahl, and J. Doull. 1993. Relative potency of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) in acute, subchronic and chronic (carcinogenicity) toxicity studies: Implications for risk assessment of chemical mixtures. Toxicology 77(1-2):39-50. Rozman, K.K., B.U. Stahl, L. Kerecsen, and A. Kettrup. 1995. Comparative toxicity of four chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and their mixture. IV. Determination of liver concentrations. Arch. Toxicol. 69(8):547-551. Ryan, J.J., Z. Amirova, and G. Carrier. 2002. Sex ratios of children of Russian pesticide producers exposed to dioxin. Environ. Health Perspect. 110(11):A699-A701. Rylander, L., U. Stromberg, and L. Hagmar. 1995. Decreased birthweight among infants born to women with a high dietary intake of fish contaminated with persistent organochlorine compounds. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 21(5):368-375. Sackett, D.L., S.E. Straus, W.S. Richardson, W. Rosenberg, and R.B. Haynes. 2000. Evidence-Based Medicine: How to Practice and Teach EBM, 2nd Ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone. Safe, S. 1990. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and related compounds: Environmental and mechanistic considerations which support the development of toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 21(1): 51-88. Sangrujee, N., R.J. Duintjer Tebbens, V.M. Cáceres, and K.M. Thompson. 2003. Policy decision options during the first five years following certification of polio eradication. MedGenMed. 5(4):35. SCF (Scientific Committee on Food). 2000. Opinion of the SCF on the Risk Assessment of Dioxins and Dioxin-like PCBs in Food, Adapted on 23 November 2000. SCF/CS/CNTM/ DIOXIN/8 Final. Scientific Committee on Food, European Commission, Brussel, Belgium [online]. Available: http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/out78_en.pdf [accessed June 24, 2005]. SCF (Scientific Committee on Food). 2001. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on the Risk Assessment of Dioxins and Dioxin-like PCBs in Food, Adapted on 30th May 2001. CS/CNTM/DIOXIN/20 Final. Scientific Committee on Food, European Commission, Brussel, Belgium [online]. Available: http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/fs/sc/scf/out90_en.pdf [accessed June 24, 2005]. Schecter, A., P. Cramer, K. Boggess, J. Stanley, and J.R. Olson. 1997. Levels of dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCB and DDE congeners in pooled food samples collected in 1995 at supermarkets across the United States. Chemosphere 34(5-7):1437-1447. Schiestl, R.H., J. Aubrecht, W.Y. Yap, S. Kandikonda, and S. Sidhom. 1997. Polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induce intrachromosomal recombination in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res. 57(19):4378-4383. Schnorr, T.M., C.C. Lawson, E.A. Whelan, D.A. Dankovic, J.A. Deddens, L.A. Piacitelli, J. Reefhuis, M.H. Sweeney, L.B. Connally, and M.A. Fingerhut. 2001. Spontaneous abortion, sex ratio, and paternal occupational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Environ. Health Perspect. 109(11):1127-1132.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Seidel, S.D., V. Li, G.M. Winter, W.J. Rogers, E.I. Martinez, and M.S. Denison. 2000. Ah receptor-based chemical screening bioassays: Application and limitations for the detection of Ah receptor agonists. Toxicol. Sci. 55(1):107-115. Shertzer, H.G., D.W. Nebert, A. Puga, M. Ary, D. Sonntag, K. Dixon, L.J. Robinson, E. Cianciolo, and T.P. Dalton. 1998. TCDD causes a sustained oxidative stress response in C57BL/6J mice. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 253(1):44-48. Silkworth, J.B., L. Antrim, and L.S. Kaminsky. 1984. Correlations between polychlorinated biphenyl immunotoxicity, the aromatic hydrocarbon locus, and liver microsomal enzyme induction in C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 75(1):156-165. Silkworth, J.B., D.S. Cutler, and G. Sack. 1989. Immunotoxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a complex environmental mixture from the Love Canal. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 12(2):303-312. Silkworth, J.B., A. Koganti, K. Illouz, A. Possolo, M. Zhao, and S.B. Hamilton. 2005. Comparison of TCDD and PCB CYP1A induction sensitivities in fresh hepatocytes from human donors, Sprague-Dawley rats, and rhesus monkeys and HepG2 cells. Toxicol. Sci. 87(2):508-519. Smialowicz, R.J., M.M. Riddle, W.C. Williams, and J.J. Diliberto. 1994. Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on humoral immunity and lymphocyte subpopulations: Differences between mice and rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 124(2):248-256. Smith, R.M., P.W. O’Keefe, D.R. Hilker, and K.M. Aldous, S.H. Mo, and R.M. Stelle. 1989. Ambient air and incinerator testing for chlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxins by low resolution mass spectrometry. Chemosphere 18(1-6):585-592. Smith, R.M., P.W. O’Keefe, K.M. Aldous, H. Valente, S.P. Connor, and R.J. Donnelly. 1990. Chlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxins in atmospheric samples from cities in New York. Environ. Sci. Technol. 24(10):1502-1506. Smyth, R.L. 2000. Evidence-based medicine. Paediatr. Respir. Rev. 1(3):287-293. Sommer, R.J., A.J. Hume, J.M. Ciak, J.J. VanNorstrand, M. Friggens, and M.K. Walker. 2005. Early developmental 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure decreases chick embryo heart chronotropic response to isoproterenol but not to agents affecting signals downstream of the beta-adrenergic receptor. Toxicol. Sci. 83(2):363-371. Son, D.S., K. Ushinohama, X. Gao, C.C. Taylor, K.F. Roby, K.K. Rozman, and P.F. Terranova. 1999. 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) blocks ovulation by a direct action on the ovary without alteration of ovarian steroidogenesis: Lack of a direct effect on ovarian granulosa and thecal-interstitial cell steroidogenesis in vitro. Reprod. Toxicol. 13(6):521-530. Staffa, J.A., and M.A. Mehlman, eds. 1979. Innovations in Cancer Risk Assessment (ED01 Study): Proceedings of a Symposium. Park Forest South IL: Pathotox Publishers. Stahl, B.U., A. Kettrup, and K. Rozman. 1992. Comparative toxicity of four chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and their mixture. Part I: Acute toxicity and toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). Arch. Toxicol. 66(7):471-477. Starr, T.B. 2001. Significant shortcomings of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s latest draft risk characterization for dioxin-like compounds. Toxicol. Sci. 64(1):7-13. Starr, T.B. 2003. Significant issues raised by meta-analyses of cancer mortality and dioxin exposure. Environ. Health Perspect. 111(12):1443-1447. Steenland, K., L. Piacitelli, J. Deddens, M. Fingerhut, and L.I. Chang. 1999. Cancer, heart disease, and diabetes in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(9):779-786. Steenland, K., J. Deddens, and L. Piacitelli. 2001. Risk assessment for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) based on an epidemiologic study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 154(5):451-458.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Stohs, S.J., M.A. Shara, N.Z. Alsharif, Z.Z. Wahba, and Z.A. al-Bayati. 1990. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced oxidative stress in female rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 106(1):126-135. Suter-Hofmann, M., and C. Schlatter. 1989. Subchronic relay toxicity study with a mixture of polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated furans (PCDFs). Chemosphere 18(1-6):277-282. ten Tusscher, G.W., P.A. Steerenberg, H. van Loveren, J.G. Vos, A.E. von dem Borne, M. Westra, J.W. van der Slikke, K. Olie, H.J. Pluim, and J.G. Koppe. 2003. Persistent hematologic and immunologic disturbances in 8-year-old Dutch children associated with perinatal dioxin exposure. Environ. Health Perspect. 111(12):1519-1523. Teraoka, H., W. Dong, Y. Tsujimoto, H. Iwasa, D. Endoh, N. Ueno, J.J. Stegeman, R.E. Peterson, and T. Hiraga. 2003. Induction of cytochrome P450 1A is required for circulation failure and edema by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in zebrafish. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 304(2):223-228. Tewhey Associates. 1997. Letter to Maine Department of Environmental Protection concerning soil sampling data collected from the Yarmouth Pole Yard Site in November 1996. Tewhey Associates, Gorham, ME. Thackaberry, E.A., Z. Jiang, C.D. Johnson, K.S. Ramos, and M.K. Walker. 2005a. Toxicogenomic profile of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the murine fetal heart: Modulation of cell cycle and extracellular matrix genes. Toxicol. Sci. 88(1):231-241. Thackaberry, E.A., B.A. Nunez, I.D. Ivnitski-Steele, M. Friggins, and M.K. Walker. 2005b. Effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on murine heart development: Alteration in fetal and postnatal cardiac growth, and postnatal cardiac chronotropy. Toxicol. Sci. 88(1):242-249. Theobald, H.M., and R.E. Peterson. 1997. In utero and lactational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: Effects on development of the male and female reproductive system of the mouse. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 145(1):124-135. Thompson, K.M., and J.D. Graham. 1996. Going beyond the single number: Using probabilistic risk assessment to improve risk management. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. 2(4):1008-1034. Thompson, K.M., and J.D. Graham. 1997. Producing paper without dioxin pollution. Pp. 203-268 in The Greening of Industry: A Risk Management Approach, J.D. Graham and J.K. Hartwell, eds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Tiernan, T.O., M.L. Taylor, J.H. Garrett, G.F. VanNess, J.G. Solch, D.J. Wagel, G.L. Ferguson, and A. Schecter. 1985. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments. Environ. Health Perspect. 59:145-158. Tillitt, D.E., and P.J. Wright. 1997. Dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a Lake Michigan lake trout extract to developing lake trout. Organohalogen Compounds 34:221-225. Toth, K., S. Somfai-Relle, J. Sugar, and J. Bence. 1979. Carcinogenicity testing of herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyethanol containing dioxin and of pure dioxin in Swiss mice. Nature 278(5704):548-549. Tritscher, A.M., A.M. Seacat, J.D. Yager, J.D. Groopman, B.D. Miller, D. Bell, T.R. Sutter, and G.W. Lucier. 1996. Increased oxidative DNA damage in livers of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treated intact but not ovariectomized rats. Cancer Lett. 98(2):219-225. Tsafriri, A. 1995. Ovulation as a tissue remodeling process. Proteolysis and cumulus expansion. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 377:121-140. Tsutsumi, O., H. Uechi, H. Sone, J. Yonemoto, Y. Takai, M. Momoeda, C. Tohyama, S. Hashimoto, M. Morita, and Y. Taketani. 1998. Presence of dioxins in human follicular fluid: Their possible stage-specific action on the development of preimplantation mouse embryos. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 250(2):498-501.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Turteltaub, K.W., J.S. Felton, B.L. Gledhill, J.S. Vogel, J.R. Southon, M.W. Caffee, R.C. Finkel, D.E. Nelson, I.D. Proctor, and J.C. Davis. 1990. Accelerator mass spectrometry in biomedical dosimetry: Relationship between low-level exposure and covalent binding of heterocyclic amine carcinogens to DNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87(14):5288-5292. Umemura, T., S. Kai, R. Hasegawa, K. Sai, Y. Kurokawa, and G.M. Williams. 1999. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) produces liver oxidative stress and promotes but does not initiate hepatocarcinogenesis in B6C3F1 mice. Carcinogenesis 20(6):1115-1120. Valdez, K.E., and B.K. Petroff. 2004. Potential roles of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in female reproductive senescence. Reprod. Biol. 4(3):243-258. Van Birgelen, A.P., J. Van der Kolk, K.M. Fase, I. Bol, H. Poiger, A. Brouwer, and M. Van den Berg. 1994a. Toxic potency of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl relative to and in combination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a subchronic feeding study in the rat. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 127(2):209-221. Van Birgelen, A.P., J. Van der Kolk, K.M. Fase, I. Bol, H. Poiger, M. Van den Berg, and A. Brouwer. 1994b. Toxic potency of 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl relative to and in combination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in a subchronic feeding study in the rat. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 126(2):202-213. Van Birgelen, A.P., K.M. Fase, J. van der Kolk, H. Poiger, A. Brouwer, W. Seinen, and M. van den Berg. 1996. Synergistic effect of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on hepatic porphyrin levels in the rat. Environ. Health Perspect. 104(5):550-557. Van den Berg, M., K. Olie, and O. Hutzinger. 1985. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): Environmental occurrence, physical, chemical and biological properties. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 9(3):171-217. Van den Berg, M., J. De Jongh, H. Poiger, and J.R. Olson. 1994. The toxicokinetics and metabolism of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and their relevance for toxicity. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 24(1):1-74. Van den Berg, M., L. Birnbaum, A.T. Bosveld, B. Brunstrom, P. Cook, M. Feeley, J.P. Giesy, A. Hanberg, R. Hasegawa, S.W. Kennedy, T. Kubiak, J.C. Larsen, F.X. van Leeuwen, A.K. Liem, C. Nolt, R.E. Peterson, L. Poellinger, S. Safe, D. Schrenk, D. Tillitt, M. Tysklind, M. Younes, F. Waern, and T. Zacharewski. 1998. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife. Environ. Health Perspect. 106(12):775-792. Van Den Heuvel, R.L., G. Koppen, J.A. Staessen, E.D. Hond, G. Verheyen, T.S. Nawrot, H.A. Roels, R. Vlietinck, and G.E. Schoeters. 2002. Immunologic biomarkers in relation to exposure markers of PCBs and dioxins in Flemish adolescents (Belgium). Environ. Health Perspect. 110(6):595-600. Van Oostdam, J.C., and J.E.H. Ward. 1995. Dioxins and Furans in the British Columbia Environment. Victoria: BC Environment, Environmental Protection Department. Vasquez, A., N. Atallah-Yunes, F.C. Smith, X. You, S.E. Chase, A.E. Silverstone, and K.L. Vikstrom. 2003. A role for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in cardiac physiology and function as demonstrated by AhR knock out mice. Cardiovasc. Toxicol. 3(2):153-163. Vecchi, A., A. Mantovani, M. Sironi, W. Luini, M. Cairo, and S. Garattini. 1980. Effect of acute exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on humoral antibody production in mice. Chem. Biol. Interact. 30(3):337-342. Vecchi, A., M. Sironi, M.A. Canegrati, M. Recchia, and S. Garattini. 1983. Immunosuppressive effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in strains of mice with different susceptibility to induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 68(3):434-441.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Versar, Inc. 1996. Results of Survey Design for Measuring Dioxin-Like Compounds in Edible Vegetable Oils. Draft report. EPA Contract No. 68-D3-0013. Prepared by Versar, Inc., for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Center for Environmental Assessment. Viluksela, M., B.U. Stahl, L.S. Birnbaum, K.W. Schramm, A. Kettrup, and K.K. Rozman. 1997a. Subchronic/chronic toxicity of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD) in rats. Part I. Design, general observations, hematology, and liver concentrations. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 146(2):207-216. Viluksela, M., B.U. Stahl, L.S. Birnbaum, and K.K. Rozman. 1997b. Subchronic/chronic toxicity of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD) in rats. Part II. Biochemical effects. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 146(2):217-226. Viluksela, M., B.U. Stahl, L.S. Birnbaum, and K.K. Rozman. 1998a. Subchronic/chronic toxicity of a mixture of four chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in rats. II. Biochemical effects. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 151(1):70-78. Viluksela, M., B.U. Stahl, L.S. Birnbaum, K.W. Schramm, A. Kettrup, and K.K. Rozman. 1998b. Subchronic/chronic toxicity of a mixture of four chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in rats. I. Design, general observations, hematology and liver concentrations. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 151(1):57-69. Viluksela, M., Y. Bager, J.T. Tuomisto, G. Scheu, M. Unkila, R. Pohjanvirta, S. Flodstrom, V.M. Kosma, J. Maki-Paakkanen, T. Vartiainen, C. Klimm, K.W. Schramm, L. Warngard, and J. Tuomisto. 2000. Liver tumor-promoting activity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in TCDD-sensitive and TCDD-resistant rat strains. Cancer Res. 60(24):6911-6920. Vreugdenhil, H.J., C.I. Lanting, P.G. Mulder, E.R. Boersma, and N. Weisglas-Kuperus. 2002a. Effects of prenatal PCB and dioxin background exposure on cognitive and motor abilities in Dutch children at school age. J. Pediatr. 140(1):48-56. Vreugdenhil, H.J., F.M. Slijper, P.G. Mulder, and N. Weisglas-Kuperus. 2002b. Effects of perinatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins on play behavior in Dutch children at school age. Environ. Health Perspect. 110(10):A593-A598. Walisser, J.A., M.K. Bunger, E. Glover, and C. Bradfield. 2004a. Gestational exposure of Ahr and Arnt hypomorphs to dioxin rescues vascular development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101(47):16677-16682. Walisser, J.A., M.K. Bunger, E. Glover, E.B. Harstad, and C.A. Bradfield. 2004b. Patent ductus venosus and dioxin resistance in mice harboring a hypomorphic Arnt allele. J. Biol. Chem. 279(16):16326-16331. Walker, N.J., P.W. Crockett, A. Nyska, A.E. Brix, M.P. Jokinen, D.M. Sells, J.R. Hailey, M. Easterling, J.K. Haseman, M. Yin, M.E. Wyde, J.R. Bucher, and C.J. Portier. 2005. Dose-additive carcinogenicity of a defined mixture of “dioxin-like compounds.” Environ. Health Perspect. 113(1):43-48. Wang, X., M.J. Santostefano, M.V. Evans, V.M. Richardson, J.J. Diliberto, and L.S. Birnbaum. 1997. Determination of parameters responsible for pharmacokinetic behavior of TCDD in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 147(1): 151-168. Warner, M., S. Samuels, P. Mocarelli, P.M. Gerthoux, L. Needham, D.G. Patterson, Jr., and B. Eskenazi. 2004. Serum dioxin concentrations and age at menarche. Environ. Health Perspect. 112(13):1289-1292. Warren, T.K., K.A. Mitchell, B.P. Lawrence. 2000. Exposure to 2,3,3,7,8 tetracholrodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) suppresses the humoral and cell-mediated immune response to influenza A virus without affecting cytolytic activity in the lung. Toxicol. Sci. 56(1):114-123.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Wassenberg, D.M., and R.T. Di Giulio. 2004a. Synergistic embryotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists with cytochrome P4501A inhibitors in Fundulus heteroclitus. Environ. Health Perspect. 112(17):1658-1664. Wassenberg, D.M., and R.T. Di Giulio. 2004b. Teratogenesis in Fundulus heteroclitus embryos exposed to a creosote-contaminated sediment extract and CYP1A inhibitors. Mar. Environ. Res. 58(2-5):163-168. Weber, L.W., M. Lebofsky, B.U. Stahl, A. Kettrup, and K. Rozman. 1992. Comparative toxicity of four chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and their mixture. Part II: Structure-activity relationships with inhibition of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate carboxylase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities. Arch. Toxicol. 66(7):478-483. Weber, L.W., C.D. Palmer, and K. Rozman. 1994. Reduced activity of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase in the liver of rats treated with chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs): Dose-responses and structure-activity relationship. Toxicology 86(1-2):63-69. Weisglas-Kuperus, N., T.C. Sas, C. Koopman-Esseboom, C.W. van der Zwan, M.A. De Ridder, A. Beishuizen, H. Hooijkaas, and P.J. Sauer. 1995. Immunologic effects of background prenatal and postnatal exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls in Dutch infants. Pediatr. Res. 38(3):404-410. Weisglas-Kuperus, N., S. Patandin, G.A. Berbers, T.C. Sas, P.G. Mulder, P.J. Sauer, and H. Hooijkaas. 2000. Immunologic effects of background exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Dutch preschool children. Environ. Health Perspect. 108(12): 1203-1207. Weisglas-Kuperus, N., H.J. Vreugdenhil, and P.G. Mulder. 2004. Immunological effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Dutch school children. Toxicol. Lett. 149(1-3):281-285. Whitlock, J.P. Jr. 1989. The control of cytochrome P-450 gene expression by dioxin. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 10(7):285-288. WHO (World Health Organization). 1992. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: Tenth Revision (ICD-10). Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO (World Health Organization). 2005. Chemical-Specific Adjustment Factors for Interspecies Differences and Human Variability: Guidance Document for Use of Data in Dose/Concentration-Response Assessment. Harmonization Project Document No. 2. Geneva: World Health Organization [online]. Available: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2005/9241546786_eng.pdf [accessed April 11, 2006]. Whysner, J., and G.M. Williams. 1996. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin mechanistic data and risk assessment: Gene regulation, cytotoxicity, enhanced cell proliferation, and tumor promotion. Pharmacol. Ther. 71(1-2):193-223. Wilker, C., L. Johnson, and S. Safe. 1996. Effects of developmental exposure to indole-3-carbinol or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on reproductive potential of male rat offspring. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 141(1):68-75. Williams, G.M. 1992. DNA reactive and epigenetic carcinogens. Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 44(8): 457-463. Williams, G.M. 1997. Chemicals with carcinogenic activity in the rodent liver; mechanistic evaluation of human risk. Cancer Lett. 117(2):175-188. Williams, G.M., and M.J. Iatropoulos. 2002. Alteration of liver cell function and proliferation: Differentiation between adaptation and toxicity. Toxicol. Pathol. 30(1):41-53. Williams, G.M., M.J. Iatropoulos, and A.M. Jeffrey. 2005. Thresholds for DNA-reactive (genotoxic) organic carcinogens. J. Toxicol. Pathol. 18(1):69-77.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Williams, S.N., H. Shih, D.K. Guenette, W. Brackney, M.S. Denison, G.V. Pickwell, and L.C. Quattrochi. 2000. Comparative studies on the effects of green tea extracts and individual tea catechins on human CYP1A gene expression. Chem. Biol. Interact. 128(3):211-229. Winters, D., D. Cleverly, K. Meier, A. Dupuy, C. Byrne, C. Deyrup, R. Ellis, J. Ferrario, R. Harless, W. Leese, M. Lorber, D. McDaniel, J. Schaum, and J. Walcott. 1996a. A statistical survey of dioxin-like compounds in United States beef: A progress report. Chemosphere 32(3):469-478. Winters, D., D. Cleverly, M. Lorber, K. Meier, A. Dupuy, C. Byrne, C. Deyrup, R. Ellis, J. Ferrario, W. Leese, J. Schaum, and J. Wolcott. 1996b. Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in national sample of beef in the United States: Preliminary results. Organohalogen Compounds 23:350-354 [online]. Available: http://www.epa.gov/ncea/pdfs/pcbbeef.pdf [accessed August 24, 2005]. Wolfe, W.H., J.E. Michalek, J.C. Miner, J.L. Pirkle, S.P. Caudill, D.G. Patterson Jr., and L.L. Needham. 1994. Determinants of TCDD half-life in veterans of operation ranch hand. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health 41(4):481-488. Wyde, M.E., V.A. Wong, A.H. Kim, G.W. Lucier, and N.J. Walker. 2001. Induction of hepatic 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine adducts by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Sprague-Dawley rats is female-specific and estrogen-dependent. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 14(7):849-855. Xu, L., A.P. Li, D.L. Kaminski, and M.F. Ruh. 2000. 2,3,7,8 Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin induction of cytochrome P4501A in cultured rat and human hepatocytes. Chem. Biol. Interact. 124(3):173-189. Yao, C., and S. Safe. 1989. 2, 3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced porphyria in genetically inbred mice: Partial antagonism and mechanistic studies. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 100(2):208-216. Yoshida, M., S. Katashima, J. Ando, T. Tanaka, F. Uematsu, D. Nakae, and A. Maekawa. 2004. Dietary indole-3-carbinol promotes endometrial adenocarcinoma development in rats initiated with N-ethyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, with induction of cytochrome P450s in the liver and consequent modulation of estrogen metabolism. Carcinogenesis 25(11):2257-2264. Yu, M.L., J.W. Hsin, C.C. Hsu, W.C. Chan, and Y.L. Guo. 1995. The immunologic evaluation of the Yucheng children. Chemosphere 37(9-12):1855-1865. Zhang, S., C. Qin, and S. Safe. 2003. Flavonoids as aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonists/ antagonists: Effects of structure and cell context. Environ. Health Perspect. 111(16): 1877-1882.

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment Appendixes

OCR for page 199
Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment This page intentionally left blank