Christine S. Grant, North Carolina State University: I said that I wasn't going to say anything, but if you look around the room you will find that I am the only African-American person here, and so I wanted to put another statistic in your basket.
I think at present there are probably about 2200 chemical engineering faculty in the country, and I am not sure how many women. Maria Burka may be able to help me with this. Do you know about how many women there are right now—maybe about 200 or 300?
Maria Burka, National Science Foundation: About 225.
Christine Grant: Two hundred and twenty-five women. There are 26 African-American chemical engineering faculty in the country, and five are women. So, I joke with people: I say, “Me and my four friends.” I have been doing this for 10 years. The other four women include an associate professor at Northeastern and an assistant professor at MIT and there is a woman at the University of Iowa and one at the University of Maryland. None of us is a full professor. These are statistics that I keep on the African-Americans and women in chemical engineering.
I met a woman at the AIChE meeting recently who said that no one had ever talked to her about being a faculty member, and she was getting ready to finish her Ph.D. So we pulled her aside and said, “You probably need to look at doing a postdoc.” We find this across the board, but I just thought I would throw out that statistic.
Maria Spinu, DuPont: I was personally involved in hiring and interviewing people for CR &D, and I can testify that we looked really, really hard and tried very, very hard to find qualified women and African-Americans. We went out of our way to do that, but the statistics are just not always on our side. We did get a few women. I don't know about everything that has happened in the last 10 or 20 years, but I know what is happening now—we try very hard, and I don't think that we would pick a man over a woman who had equal qualifications.
Janet Osteryoung: I want to second what Christine said. In fact, there is a pervasive attitude about picking and choosing. It affects everybody, not just women. I think one of the things we can say is that there are so many women—and there are so many women who have received good training —that, if we cannot succeed in this, how can we succeed in anything?